TOPIC BRIEFS

The Crisis in Afghanistan - Humanitarian Aspect:

The Crisis in Afghanistan - Social Aspect:

Since 1978, Afghanistan has been involved in different wars. This began with a successful coup lead by the Communist Party with support from the Soviets in 1978. This resulted in retaliation from the US, Pakistan, and several Arab countries. In the 1990s, the West had won, and the rest of the countries began removing their influences and decreasing their presence in the country. The Afghani warlords, once supported by the US, split up the country. This resulted in the Taliban arriving in 1996, appearing as liberators. Then on September 11th, 2001, Al-Qaeda lead by Osama Bin Laden carried out its infamous attacks. This led to the US retaliating by having military presence in Afghanistan and encouraging the warlords they had once supported to control the country. Therefore, there is currently great unrest in the country.  

 

Now, there are also many humanitarian issues occurring in Afghanistan. There are 6.3 million Afghans in need of humanitarian assistance and support, according to the Humanitarian Response Plan. This includes access to food, healthcare, and safe shelter. Moreover, as of 2018, there are 1.9 million people in Afghanistan that are internally displaced. This is due to unsafe conditions where they live resulting in them needing to flee. Furthermore, there are an estimated 2.6 million Afghan refugees, primarily in Iran and Pakistan. This makes Afghanistan the second-largest refugee population globally. However, these refugees are often threatened by refoulment, which is forcible return. This is illegal under customary international law. Additionally, the situation in Afghanistan is generally unsafe for civilians. According to the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) there were 10392 civilian casualties in 2019. Although this is a 5% decrease from 2018, the number is still very high and proves that the human right of security and safety is being violated. There has also been a 31% increase in airstrikes, which have killed innocent civilians. In addition to that humanitarian violation, it is estimated that almost 3 million people in Afghanistan face food insecurity. This is as a result of high unemployment rates, and long droughts seasons with not enough support from the government or international bodies. Thus, it is important that the United Nations finds solutions to these humanitarian crises by tackling the crisis and its impacts.  

Civil war has acquired an assortment of social problems Afghanistan, for example, destitution; interethnic conflict; gender inequality; and a lot of burglary, hijacking, and banditry. Revenge is viewed as an important way to right one’s wrongs. The civil war has fortified these propensities. The progressing war had kept on killing, wounding, and displacing many people. Kabul has been to a great extent without power since 1994. Water, telephones, and sewage frameworks have been annihilated. Long stretches of war have isolated and ruined more families that customarily thought about widows and orphan kids. Presently many are left to fight for themselves. A few territories started encountering starvation during the 1990s and illnesses as a result of malnutrition are being accounted for the first time in years.

 

Despite the fact that the Afghan populace is made out of numerous particular ethnic groups, certain components of their lifestyle are very common among eachother. Typically, the family is the backbone of Afghan culture. Very close bonds exist inside the family, which comprises of the individuals from a variety of ages. The family is going by the oldest man, or patriarch, whose word is law for the entire family. Family respect, pride, and regard toward different individuals are profoundly prized characteristics. Among the two villagers and normans the family lives respectively and structures an independent group. In the villages every family possesses possibly one mud-block house or a walled compound containing mud-block or stonewalled houses. A similar example wins among the nomads, but tents replace the houses.

The Crisis in Afghanistan - Economic Aspect:

Since the Cold War, many countries have used a certain strategy to justify their intervention in transnational conflict by saying that it works to ensure international peace and security and defends freedom. Many countries have used this type of strategy to intervene in regional crises acting in the name of the international community. It has been repeatedly demonstrated as military forces have made their way into foreign countries In the fight for “peace”. Although, the truth of the matter is that in many cases, as we’ve seen over the course of history, the fight for peace ends up being a fight against peace. Countries use their intervention in the conflict to their advantage for reasons like oil, petrol and other valuable resources. The leaders of the countries win public support by persuading people that these interventions act in the name of peace, justice, democracy and civilization. Currently, conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine are bringing light to outside transnational military intervention and as more conflicts emerge, we can expect more detrimental military intervention to occur. Which is why the need for a solution to these issues is essential!

Measures to ensure responsible military intervention in transnational conflicts

Afghanistan’s impressive average annual growth of nine per cent from 2002-2013 has declined rapidly since 2014. According to the World Bank’s World Development Indicators, annual GDP growth fell from 14.4 per cent in 2012 to 2 percent in 2013, and 1.3 and 1.5 per cent in 2014 and 2015 respectively. This drastic economic decline is mainly the result of the post-2014 international military drawdown and the year of intensified political instability that followed the 2014 election. Foreign troops once brought hundreds of millions of dollars into the Afghan economy, and their departure from 800 bases, large and small, deprives the country of what was after 2002 its largest single source of revenue. By one estimate, more than 200,000 Afghans have now lost jobs in logistics, security, and other sectors of a war-driven economy.

 

Heightened security concerns, political uncertainty and the erosion of the rule of law since 2014 have added to a devastating loss of confidence by consumers, producers and investors. Pervasive fears of a political meltdown have led to a surge in capital flight, with both wealthy and middle-class Afghans moving assets to the Gulf States, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Afghanistan’s human capital shrank too, especially among the urban middle class that had emerged after 2001 to play a stabilizing role in Afghan politics. Hundreds of thousands of Afghans, mostly young and educated, left the country in 2014 and 2015, often to seek refugee status in Europe.

                                                      

This sudden economic reversal has considerable political, security and social implications. Rising unemployment and widespread poverty is already widening the legitimacy gap between the National Unity Government (NUG) and the Afghan public and expanding the reservoir of grievances that insurgents as well as hardline ethnic and regional players could further exploit. Unfortunately, it is not the NUG’s only pressing problem.