TOPIC BRIEFS

The Corruption Crisis in Lebanon - Social Aspect:

Corruption occurs at all levels of society and is not restricted to high-ranking authorities. Using personal family and party ties to receive favors such as avoiding a long line, getting into a selective institution, or obtaining a job, as in many neighboring nations. Corruption is a behavioral result of power and greed at all levels of society. In Lebanon, corruption is stealthy, opportunistic, repeating, and strong in the absence of a rulebook, relying on domination, terror, and unwritten codes: a key component of the "silent violence." As a result, to the crisis, Lebanon has seen an increase in robberies, burglaries and the explanation behind this is that people must steal, loan from other, or take basic essentials in order to live basic lives.

The amount of money flowing into the wallets of officials rather of investing it on essential commodities required by families or infrastructural for the country is creating poverty. The scarcity of essential resources, such as water and food, fuels jealously, insecurity, and animosity between the wealthy and the poor. People from low-income households look up to people from wealthy households who have access to numerous conveniences that they do not.

Many of the large-scale Lebanese protests in recent history have been motivated by anti-corruption fervor. Notable examples include the 2015–2016 Lebanese demonstrations, which were caused by the unplanned closure of a trash landfill, resulting in a "trash crisis," and the 2019–2020 Lebanese demonstrations, which were caused by a tax hike. Corruption in Lebanon's governmental sector is harming Pacific residents, particularly vulnerable groups that rely on key services including health, education, social care, law enforcement, and customs administration.

The Corruption Crisis in Lebanon - Economic Aspect:

Economic corruption has always existed in Lebanon, but it became even worse after civil war ended in 1990. Simple groceries are becoming a luxury that few can afford as a growing number of Lebanese families struggle to make ends meet as the economy collapses. For many in Lebanon, the ongoing problems have served as a wake-up call. While the government continues to be chastised for its slow responses and political gridlock, citizens must find answers to these issues. One of the first publications to show the scope of corruption in Lebanese institutions and its effects on the economy was the UN corruption assessment report on Lebanon. The Lebanese government is projected to waste about US$1.5 billion per year as a result of widespread corruption at all levels of government.

Lebanon is the world's third most indebted country, with a debt-to-GDP ratio of 170 percent. Prior to COVID-19, one-quarter of the population was unemployed, and hyperinflation was causing prices to skyrocket, plunging an increasing number of people into poverty. Corruption raises the cost of running and maintaining government organizations. This increases inefficiency in government institutions and raises public and social prices, as shown in Lebanon, where government expenditure accounts for a large portion of the country's GDP. The World Bank issued a study on June 1, 2021, warning that unless Lebanon's "bankrupt economic structure, which benefitted a few for so long" was transformed, the country's economic crisis might become one of the three worst since the mid-nineteenth century.

The Corruption Crisis in Lebanon - Humanitarian Aspect:

Corruption in humanitarian operations, if not effectively handled, may weaken both the amount and quality of relief programming, as well as exacerbate corruption concerns in the emergency setting, which is now a problem in Lebanon. Lebanon is a vulnerable state with a political class that has long failed to safeguard its citizens. However, after the Beirut explosion on August 4th, 2020 Lebanon's dire health and humanitarian crises have escalated. The blast left 190 dead and more than 6500 injured. Food and medical supplies were also under jeopardy. The explosion caused extensive devastation, with around 40% of Beirut seriously destroyed and over 300,000 individuals living in ruined homes. The WHO announced that the health system has been severely harmed, with three hospitals shut down.

Prior to the blast, 75% of Lebanese were in need of assistance, 33% had lost their employment, and one million people were living in poverty. Following the explosion, the percentages increased to around 15%. Other than the Beirut explosion another humanitarian crisis Lebanon is facing is refugees. Lebanon has the world's highest per capita number of displaced individuals; one in every five persons in the nation is a refugee. The vast majority are Syrians; however, Lebanon also has a sizable Palestinian refugee community, including Syrian refugees. Due to the large amount of corruption happening in Lebanon, its people are facing a struggle in terms of basic human rights. People are not being provided with simple healthcare, housing as well as safety.

Since the Cold War, many countries have used a certain strategy to justify their intervention in transnational conflict by saying that it works to ensure international peace and security and defends freedom. Many countries have used this type of strategy to intervene in regional crises acting in the name of the international community. It has been repeatedly demonstrated as military forces have made their way into foreign countries In the fight for “peace”. Although, the truth of the matter is that in many cases, as we’ve seen over the course of history, the fight for peace ends up being a fight against peace. Countries use their intervention in the conflict to their advantage for reasons like oil, petrol and other valuable resources. The leaders of the countries win public support by persuading people that these interventions act in the name of peace, justice, democracy and civilization. Currently, conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine are bringing light to outside transnational military intervention and as more conflicts emerge, we can expect more detrimental military intervention to occur. Which is why the need for a solution to these issues is essential!

Measures to ensure responsible military intervention in transnational conflicts