TOPIC BRIEFS

The question of reducing tensions between Iran and the United States with a specific focus on nuclear weapon disarmament

The question of ensuring the suspension of hostilities in the Yemeni Civil War

A very recent conflict being discussed nowadays, is the Iranian American conflict and threatening tension between these two nations. Unrest between the United States and Iran is definitely not new, as tensions has existed between these two nations since the Islamic revolution is Iran in the 20th century, where American embassy workers were taken as hostages for almost a year. What truly fueled this conflict and hatred however was Trump’s assassination of Iran’s major general Qassim Soleimani in Baghdad, in early 2020. As a furious reaction, the Iranian government even offered an 80-million-dollar bounty reward for any person with Donald Trump’s ‘head’. At that point, the world saw the very close start of a third world war considering the allies siding with either country, like West European and Gulf nations siding with the USA, while China, Russia, and North Korea (public American enemies) siding with Iran. Both nations raced (and continue to race) in achieving nuclear superiority, which also threatens world peace, especially when Iran openly pulled out of the Nuclear deal where it was supposed to limit its nuclear power a year after the United States did so. The Middle East is also heavily involved in the crisis, as both powers have spread their influence across nations in that region, thus somehow dividing it politically. An all-out nuclear war is very probable in such aforementioned events if tensions continue to escalate, considering how each side refuses to compromise and prefer self-interest over world peace. Consequently, posing sanctions on both sides for example, or even promoting and encouraging peace talks are very important actions that should be taken at a time like this.

The MENA region has been littered with various different conflicts and wars since the dawn of the 20th century. Whether it be revolutions and rebellions against imperialism or other conflicts within the MENA region. One of the nations within the MENA region that has faced the most civil conflict is Yemen. The nation’s democracy has never reached a point of stability, with a large number of civil conflict continuously occurring for the last couple of decades. Yemeni governments have always been striving to facilitate a healthy multi-party system. However, even when the system was operating as intended, it was always dominated by one party, the General People’s Congress, sometimes against the people’s vote. However, as of recently, the old Yemeni government are on the fringe of being overthrown by the Houthi Movement, an Islamic political group who currently control the capital, Sana’a. These 2 parties also face opposition from Al-Qaeda, as well as a number of other smaller parties. The old Yemeni government has since shown support for and been backed by the Saudi Arabian government, as well as a coalition of nine countries. This has caused the conflict to grow larger than ever. The war has been ongoing since 2015, with over 50,000 casualties thus far. The one thing Yemen has urgently needed since its inception is stability. A stable, multi-party system free of collusion or forceful third-party involvement. Measures must be ensured to secure this.

The Question of Addressing Kurdistan's ongoing conflict in the Middle East region.

Since the Cold War, many countries have used a certain strategy to justify their intervention in transnational conflict by saying that it works to ensure international peace and security and defends freedom. Many countries have used this type of strategy to intervene in regional crises acting in the name of the international community. It has been repeatedly demonstrated as military forces have made their way into foreign countries In the fight for “peace”. Although, the truth of the matter is that in many cases, as we’ve seen over the course of history, the fight for peace ends up being a fight against peace. Countries use their intervention in the conflict to their advantage for reasons like oil, petrol and other valuable resources. The leaders of the countries win public support by persuading people that these interventions act in the name of peace, justice, democracy and civilization. Currently, conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine are bringing light to outside transnational military intervention and as more conflicts emerge, we can expect more detrimental military intervention to occur. Which is why the need for a solution to these issues is essential!

Measures to ensure responsible military intervention in transnational conflicts

Today, Kurdistan’s conflict and tensions with nearby countries is considered a prominent conflict in the Middle Region, that has been ongoing now for almost a century. Kurdistan is a Middle Eastern Region, that falls within parts of Iraq, Syria, Turkey, as well as a small sector in Iran, and it comprises of an ethnic group known as the Kurds. This ethnic group has its separate, language, history, and culture. However, it does not have any land of its own, and henceforth, it is not considered a country. Establishing one on the other hand, was, and continues to be their main goal in all conflicts. One of the most notable conflicts regarding Kurdistan’s fight for independence and recognition, is the current Kurdish-Turkish conflict, which began way back. The Turkish government sent military and armed forced to Kurdish-inhabited regions to suppress them, and to attempt to wipe out their ethnicity from existence, using various inhumane techniques, which led to a worldwide condemnation of Turkey. Kurds also face lack of recognition and oppression from Arab nations as well, mainly Syria, and Iraq. Multiple wars and armed conflicts took place between Kurds and the Iraqi government throughout the 20th century, until they were finally granted an autonomous region. The Kurdish Crisis also took involvement in the Syrian Civil war, as multiple Kurdish-Syrian parties attempted into involve themselves in the revolution as a way to gain autonomy within Syria. Today, Kurdish conflict with Middle Eastern nations does not show future hope of ending soon due to many factors, one of the most important being nationalism. However, with increased peace talks, ceasefire, and other actions, this conflict may come to an end.